History Of Multan Through
(1000 - 1600 AD)
Mahmood Ghaznavi attacked Multan for the first time - conquered it and demolished many Hindu temples. He demolished the famous 'Sun Mandir' also. Mahmood Ghaznavi attacked Multan for the second time during 1010 A.D. and conquered it but did not stay for long.
Sultan Shahab-ud-din, who is also known as Mohammad Gbory, finally defeated Pirthvi Raj and conquered India. After consolidating his position in Delhi, the capital of India, led an army attack, against Multan and conquered it. As such, Multan, which had remained almost independent under the Arab rulers became a dependency of the house of Ghaznavi. Sultan Mohammad Ghory appointed Aii Karmani as his Governor of Multan and Uch.
In 1218 A.D. Changez Khan invaded Western Turkistan and for the next three centuries history of Multan is practically the history of incursions from Western and Central Asia to which the invasion of Changez gave rise. During this period Multan was nominally subject to the Delhi Empire. There were, however, two periods when Multan was practically a separate Kingdom independent of Delhi. At times the province was held by powerful governors who, though, unable to secure independence, were powerful factors in the dynastic changes of the time.
The Administration of Multan suffered due to preoccupation of Delhi Empire in repelling the repeated raids of Mughals from Khurasan and Central Asia. In 1 284 A.D. the Mughals under Taimur Khan, defeated and killed prince Muhammad, known as the Martyr Prince who then ruled Multan. In 1305 A.D. an invasion under Aibak Khan was repelled by the redoubtable warrior Ghazi Beg Tughlak, who is said to have 29 times defeated the invading hordes. In 1 327 A.D. a force under Turmsharin Khan over-ran the distt. and retreated on payment of bribe.
After the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Multan became its western frontier. In the beginning it was governed by Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha, then captured by jaial-al-Din Manakabarni and finally annexed by Shams-AI-Din Altamash. When Balban strengthened his frontier guard he posted his eldest son Sultan Muhammad Khan-i-Shahid here and made him responsible for the defense. It was under his patronage that Amir Khusrau and Hasan Dehiavi lived in Multan and composed their poems.
Multan, however, continuously suffered from Mongol invasions. In order to meet these Mongol pressures Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughlaq was appointed as a warden of the Frontier Marches. From Multan he rose to be the Sultan of Delhi - Multan remained under the Tughlaqs until it was conquered by Amir Taimur in 1 397 A.D.
During this long period the prosperity of Muitan grew unabated. It was during this period that the city was adorned by important monuments that established a particular school of Muitani Architecture. The Tombs of Baha-AI-Din Zakariya, Shah Rukn-AI-Din, Rukn-e-Alam and Shamas Sabzwari have given to Multan a unique place in the indo-Muslim Architecture. The presence of these tombs of the saints mentioned above have also added a religious tone to the city.
In 1 397 A.D., came the invasion of Taimur whose troops occupied Uch and Multan, sacked Tiamba, raided the Khokhars of Ravi and passed across Beas to Pakpattan and Delhi.
For about forty years after the departure of Taimur there was no government in India in reality. Khizer Khan Syed governed the Kingdom in the name of Taimur but without any sovereign title or royal honours. During the troubled reign of his grand son Syed Mohammad, an insurrection broke out in Multan among the Afghans called Langas. Finally one of the Langa chiefs proclaimed himself as the king of Multan under the title of Sultan Kutab-ud-din Langa. During the eighty years that Multan was held by Langa Dynasty, it became the principal caravan route between India and Kandhar. Commerce and agriculture flourished. All the lands along the banks of the Chenab and the Ghagra as well as some on the Indus were cultivated and prosperity flourished once again.
In 1526 A.D. Shah Hussain Arghun, at that time the ruler of Sind, seized Muitan on behalf of Baber, the Mughal emperor. He bestowed it on his son Mirza Askari. The Mirza, assisted by Langar Khan, one of the powerful amirs of Sultan Mahmud Langa, held possession of Multan during the rest of the Baber's reign. After the death of Baber, Humayun found himself compelled to surrender Multan, in fact the whole of Punjab, to his eldest brother, Kamran Mirza. The prince established his court at Lahore and deputed one of his arnirs to take care of Multan.
During the confusion that followed the flight of Humayun to Persia the Kingdom of Multan was captured by Baluchies under their chieftain Fatteh Khan who surrendered it to Hebat Khan, one of the commanders of Sher Shah Suri. Pleased with his services, Sher Shah Suri bestowed the Kigndom of Multan on Hebat Khan.